Thursday, May 17, 2018

Friday Thinking 18 May 2018

Hello all – Friday Thinking is a humble curation of my foraging in the digital environment. My purpose is to pick interesting pieces, based on my own curiosity (and the curiosity of the many interesting people I follow), about developments in some key domains (work, organization, social-economy, intelligence, domestication of DNA, energy, etc.)  that suggest we are in the midst of a change in the conditions of change - a phase-transition. That tomorrow will be radically unlike yesterday.

Many thanks to those who enjoy this.
In the 21st Century curiosity will SKILL the cat.
Jobs are dying - work is just beginning.

“Be careful what you ‘insta-google-tweet-face’”
Woody Harrelson - Triple 9



For “simple” single-celled organisms, microbes often can seem as civic-minded as an Amish barn-raising crew.
They cooperate to mince unwieldy complex carbohydrates into bite-size pieces for all to enjoy. They share the artisanally crafted molecules needed to extract essential iron from their surroundings.

They jointly construct a kind of slimy tarp, a biofilm, on a convenient surface like a pond rock or your teeth, under which the microbes then safely hide. Through teamwork and constant chemical communication, microorganisms shape the world on which we macro-organisms preen.

A Population That Pollutes Itself Into Extinction (and It’s Not Us)

Read and others, including researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, posit that the virus that causes Marek’s has been changing over time in ways that helped it evade its previous vaccines. The big question is whether the vaccines directly incited these changes or the evolution happened, coincidentally, for other reasons, but Read is pretty sure the vaccines have played a role. In a 2015 paper in PLOS Biology, Read and his colleagues vaccinated 100 chickens, leaving 100 others unvaccinated. They then infected all the birds with strains of Marek’s that varied in how virulent — as in how dangerous and infectious — they were. The team found that, over the course of their lives, the unvaccinated birds shed far more of the least virulent strains into the environment, whereas the vaccinated birds shed far more of the most virulent strains. The findings suggest that the Marek’s vaccine encourages more dangerous viruses to proliferate. This increased virulence might then give the viruses the means to overcome birds’ vaccine-primed immune responses and sicken vaccinated flocks.

Most people have heard of antibiotic resistance. Vaccine resistance, not so much. That’s because drug resistance is a huge global problem that annually kills nearly 25,000 people in the United States and in Europe, and more than twice that many in India. Microbes resistant to vaccines, on the other hand, aren’t a major menace. Perhaps they never will be: Vaccine programs around the globe have been and continue to be immensely successful at preventing infections and saving lives.

Recent research suggests, however, that some pathogen populations are adapting in ways that help them survive in a vaccinated world, and that these changes come about in a variety of ways. Just as the mammal population exploded after dinosaurs went extinct because a big niche opened up for them, some microbes have swept in to take the place of competitors eliminated by vaccines.

Vaccines Are Pushing Pathogens to Evolve

In its simplest definition, a Futurist Mindset is a way of understanding ourselves, others, and the universe around us. Having a Futurist Mindset goes beyond just being able to think about the future — it is a way to live with purpose and passion as we strive for something more. We are continually on a path of understanding who we can become and our place in the cosmos.

The Futurist Mindset empowers each of us as individuals to consciously evolve ourselves, our assumptions, and our perceived limitations. It reframes our perception of failure and expands our capacity to hold dialectic ideas. It assists with personal development by building empathy, resilience, insight, and emotional maturity. Through this process of growth and improvement, we can on an individual level help to cross the chasm between the present and the future.

With a Futurist Mindset, we can:
- Have empathy. Feel what another being — human or non-human — is experiencing from their frame of reference.
- Be a lifelong learner. Seek the endless thrill and insatiable appetite for new information.
- Be a lifelong un-learner. Use self-reflection to dismantle what doesn’t work anymore.
- Be a dreamer. Paint pictures of multiple possible futures and realities in your mind, and share what you see.
- Be comfortable being uncomfortable. Constantly put yourself in situations that don’t feel good, but enable you to grow as a person.
- Be collaborative. The only way we will continue to exist is if we work together.
- Be able to see outside of yourself. There is more to the world than your own thoughts and feelings. You are more than that.
- And last — but not least — be a visionary doer.

What Does It Mean to Have a Futurist Mindset?

This is an excellent - must read article explaining the potential impact of the EU’s recent legislation - General Data Protection Regulation. It also provides a simple explanation of the difference between advertising and ADTECH - which in itself is worth the read.
“Sunrise day” for the GDPR is 25 May. That’s when the EU can start smacking fines on violators.

GDPR will pop the adtech bubble

In The Big Short, investor Michael Burry says “One hallmark of mania is the rapid rise in the incidence and complexity of fraud.” (Burry shorted the mania- and fraud-filled subprime mortgage market and made a mint in the process.)
One would be equally smart to bet against the mania for the tracking-based form of advertising called adtech.

Since tracking people took off in the late ’00s, adtech has grown to become a four-dimensional shell game played by hundreds(or, if you include martech, thousands) of companies, none of which can see the whole mess, or can control the fraud, malware and other forms of bad acting that thrive in the midst of it.

And that’s on top of the main problem: tracking people without their knowledge, approval or a court order is just flat-out wrong. The fact that it can be done is no excuse. Nor is the monstrous sum of money made by it.

Without adtech, the EU’s GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) would never have happened. But the GDPR did happen, and as a result websites all over the world are suddenly posting notices about their changed privacy policies, use of cookies, and opt-in choices for “relevant” or “interest-based” (translation: tracking-based) advertising. Email lists are doing the same kinds of things.

This is a good signal of the emerging capacity for nanosensors for medical and health application and other forms of ‘nanobots’ or for structural and environmental applications. There is a 2 min video.

First implanted ultrasonic neural dust sensors-stimulators could monitor internal nerves, muscles or organs in real time and treat disease

In 2016, UC Berkeley engineers demonstrated the first implanted, ultrasonic neural dust sensors, bringing closer the day when a Fitbit-like device could monitor internal nerves, muscles or organs in real time. Now, Berkeley engineers have taken neural dust a step forward by building the smallest volume, most efficient wireless nerve stimulator to date.
The device, called StimDust, short for stimulating neural dust, adds more sophisticated electronics to neural dust without sacrificing the technology’s tiny size or safety, greatly expanding the range of neural dust applications. The researchers’ goal is to have StimDust implanted in the body through minimally invasive procedures to monitor and treat disease in a real-time, patient-specific approach. StimDust is just 6.5 cubic millimeters in volume, about the size of a granule of sand, and is powered wirelessly by ultrasound, which the device then uses to power nerve stimulation at an efficiency of 82 percent.

“StimDust is the smallest deep-tissue stimulator that we are aware of that’s capable of stimulating almost all of the major therapeutic targets in the peripheral nervous system,” said Rikky Muller, co-lead of the work and assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at Berkeley. “This device represents our vision of having tiny devices that can be implanted in minimally invasive ways to modulate or stimulate the peripheral nervous system, which has been shown to be efficacious in treating a number of diseases.”

The research will be presented April 10 at the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference in San Diego. The research team was co-led by one of neural dust’s inventors, Michel Maharbiz, a professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at Berkeley.

The creation of neural dust at Berkeley, led by Maharbiz and Jose Carmena, a Berkeley professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences and a member of the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, has opened the door for wireless communication to the brain and peripheral nervous system through tiny implantable devices inside the body that are powered by ultrasound. Engineering teams around the world are now using the neural dust platform to build devices that can be charged wirelessly by ultrasound. Watch the video below, from Berkeley News in 2016, about the neural dust invention.

The use of AI not only with sensors but integrated with our working tools can also offer us a means of early diagnosis of ill health.
Mindstrong found clearer signals in the rhythms of a person’s typing and scrolling on a smartphone screen—data that can be gathered from people’s everyday activities. “These ­human-computer interactions, measured in millisecond response times, are predictive of a person’s cognitive and emotional state,”

Tech Watches You for Digital Symptoms of Brain Disorders

Depression, Alzheimer’s, and other syndromes leave their mark in the way you type and talk
The medical professionals tasked with caring for our minds don’t have an easy job. To diagnose people with neuropsychiatric diseases, doctors can perform brain scans, but such scans are expensive and the results are sometimes inscrutable. The other options include conducting time-­consuming cognitive tests, or relying on doctors’ own subjective analyses.

Seeing an opportunity, a number of startups have devised quantitative methods to diagnose diseases or assess mental health while patients complete routine activities, like talking on a smartphone, typing on a keyboard, or scrolling through a website. Here are three companies that say they can lift the “fingerprints” of mental disorders from people’s mundane behaviors.

Another dimension to the ever shrinking sensor and nanobot is perhaps more ambivalent. There is an 8 min video.
“When the system issues a warning, the manager asks the worker to take a day off or move to a less critical post,” Jin Jia, associate professor at Ningbo University, home to one of the project’s main research centers, told the SCMP. “Some jobs require high concentration. There is no room for a mistake.”

Chinese Surveillance Is Literally Getting in Workers’ Heads

An “emotional surveillance” system is allowing supervisors to scrutinize employees’ brainwaves for signs of distress, according to a report from the South China Morning Post (SCMP). The technology is the result of a government-backed project.

Here’s how it works. Lightweight sensors embedded in workers’ hats or helmets wirelessly transmit the wearer’s brainwave data to a computer — it probably works a bit like an electroencephalogram (EEG), as MIT Tech Review notes. Then, artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms scan the data, looking for outliers that could indicate anxiety or rage.

Some organizations use the sensors during routine work, while others embed them in virtual reality (VR) headsets to monitor workers’ emotions during training exercises.

We don’t know exactly how many workers have been subjected to this surveillance system, but the SCMP article does say the technology is being deployed “on an unprecedented scale” in China.

Several companies told the SCMP that using the emotional surveillance system has been a financial boon. One claimed a 2 billion yuan ($315 million) increase in revenue since 2014, thanks in part to the system; another claimed a 140 million yuan ($22 million) increase over the past two years.

This is an important signal - one indicating a serious alternative economic paradigm that embraces the digital environment. Personally - I think that a concept of a ‘planned market economy’ is very flawed - as history has demonstrated that planned economies are just as vulnerable to corruption and failure as the current market capitalism is proving to be.
That said - perhaps a better concept is a ‘governed market economy’ enabled by the digital environment. All living systems must rely on homeostatic self-regulation in order to remain both viable and more importantly evolvable. Self-organization, transparency, inclusiveness, and full participation are key enablers for the paradox of simplifying complexity to enact a living viable system.

AI will spell the end of capitalism

Feng Xiang, a professor of law at Tsinghua University, is one of China’s most prominent legal scholars. He spoke at the Berggruen Institute’s China Center workshop on artificial intelligence in March in Beijing.

The most momentous challenge facing socio-economic systems today is the arrival of artificial intelligence. If AI remains under the control of market forces, it will inexorably result in a super-rich oligopoly of data billionaires who reap the wealth created by robots that displace human labor, leaving massive unemployment in their wake.

But China’s socialist market economy could provide a solution to this. If AI rationally allocates resources through big data analysis, and if robust feedback loops can supplant the imperfections of “the invisible hand” while fairly sharing the vast wealth it creates, a planned economy that actually works could at last be achievable.

The more AI advances into a general-purpose technology that permeates every corner of life, the less sense it makes to allow it to remain in private hands that serve the interests of the few instead of the many. More than anything else, the inevitability of mass unemployment and the demand for universal welfare will drive the idea of socializing or nationalizing AI.

Coming to a mall or theatre near you - soon.

All We Want to Do Is Watch Each Other Play Video Games

Gamers are the new stars. Esports arenas are the new movie theaters.
Video games are beginning their takeover of the real world.
Across North America this year, companies are turning malls, movie theaters, storefronts and parking garages into neighborhood esports arenas.

At the same time, content farms are spinning up in Los Angeles, where managers now see gamers as some peculiar new form of famous person to cultivate — half athlete, half influencer.

And much of it is powered by the obsession with one game: Fortnite. Over the last month, people have spent more than 128 million hours on Twitch just watching other people play Fortnite, the game that took all the best elements of building, shooting and survival games and merged them into one.

How obsessed are people? After each of their wins this season, the Houston Astros — among many other sports teams  — are doing a very specific dance, their arms in the air, fingers spread, their legs bent, toes tapping rapidly. It’s a Fortnite dance.

Here’s How to Save America’s Malls
For gaming, this is a moment of convergence of trends. Professional esports leagues around games like League of Legends are growing more popular and more serious; huge numbers of people are tuning into livestreams to watch gamers play (Fortnite broke the record), and going to YouTube to get fun game-centric content from game celebrities.

At the same time? Physical spaces around the country are being renovated into gamer bars.
Those 150 million gamers in America want to gather. They want to sit next to each other, elbow to elbow, controller to controller. They want the lighting to be cool, the snacks to be Hot Pockets, and they want a full bar because they are not teenagers anymore.

A good signal of the emerging energy storage technologies.

Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery to store solar and wind energy

Stanford scientists have developed a manganese-hydrogen battery that could fill a missing piece in the nation’s energy puzzle by storing wind and solar energy for when it is needed, lessening the need to burn carbon-emitting fossil fuels.
The prototype manganese-hydrogen battery, reported April 30 in Nature Energy, stands just three inches tall and generates a mere 20 milliwatt hours of electricity, which is on par with the energy levels of LED flashlights that hang on a key ring. Despite the prototype’s diminutive output, the researchers are confident they can scale up this table-top technology to an industrial-grade system that could charge and recharge up to 10,000 times, creating a grid-scale battery with a useful lifespan well in excess of a decade.

Yi Cui, a professor of materials science at Stanford and senior author on the paper, said manganese-hydrogen battery technology could be one of the missing pieces in the nation’s energy puzzle – a way to store unpredictable wind or solar energy so as to lessen the need to burn reliable but carbon-emitting fossil fuels when the renewable sources aren’t available.

“What we’ve done is thrown a special salt into water, dropped in an electrode, and created a reversible chemical reaction that stores electrons in the form of hydrogen gas,” Cui said.

Another good signal of the phase transition in energy geopolitics - and perhaps the transformation of North Africa.

Morocco is building a solar farm as big as Paris in the Sahara Desert

An amazing transformation has taken place on the dunes below Morocco’s sun-blasted High Atlas mountains.

Against the yellow sand thousands of curved mirrors, each taller than a human, stand in rows. These are part of a solar-power generating plant that is rapidly changing how the whole continent produces its electricity.
The mirrors cover an area of roughly 1.4 million square metres, about the same size as the French capital city of Paris.

The first phase of this plant generated enough electricity to power 650,000 homes when it was switched on in 2016.
By 2020, or even sooner, the $9 billion solar power plant is expected to generate 580 megawatts (MW), enough electricity to power over a million homes.

Perhaps more importantly, the solar farm, near the city of Ouarzazate – known as the gateway to the desert – could also be the doorway to a new era of cleaner energy production in Africa.

And here another signal of the growing change in the regulatory framework for new housing design and development around the world.
“California is about to take a quantum leap in energy standards,” Raymer said. “No other state in the nation mandates solar, and we are about to take that leap.”

California to become first U.S. state mandating solar on new homes

For seven years, a handful of homebuilders offered solar as an optional item to buyers willing to pay extra to go green.

Now, California is on the verge of making solar standard on virtually every new home built in the Golden State.

The California Energy Commission is scheduled to vote Wednesday, May 9, on new energy standards mandating most new homes have solar panels starting in 2020.
If approved as expected, solar installations on new homes will skyrocket.

Just 15 percent to 20 percent of new single-family homes built include solar, according to Bob Raymer, technical director for the California Building Industry Association.

And here’s some good news about the emerging transformation of the traditional electric grid via energy storage.

Tesla’s giant battery in Australia reduced grid service cost by 90%

Tesla’s giant Powerpack battery in Australia has been in operation for about 6 months now and we are just starting to discover the magnitude of its impact on the local energy market.
A new report now shows that it reduced the cost of the grid service that it performs by 90% and it has already taken a majority share of the market.

When an issue happens or maintenance is required on the power grid in Australia, the Energy Market Operator calls for FCAS (frequency control and ancillary services) which consists of large and costly gas generators and steam turbines kicking in to compensate for the loss of power.

If we can create the types of protections that reduce packaging and promote the development of more packaging materials like this one - could make a better and still convenient world. The examples listed are interesting.
Only 14% of plastic packaging is collected for recycling, while most plastic packaging is used only once. In addition, 95% of the value of plastic packaging material, worth between $80 billion and $120 billion annually, is lost to the economy.

This 'plastic' bag is 100% biodegradable and made of plants

A company in Indonesia has created a plastic bag so eco-friendly you can eat it.
It’s made out of cassava, the vegetable root which is a staple in the diets of many in Africa, Latin America and Asia, but which can also be used in manufacturing.

The company, Avani Eco based in Bali, has created a bag that they say looks and feels like plastic, but is completely degradable and compostable.

It also dissolves in water, so if animals eat it, it won’t cause any harm. They say it’s so safe, in fact, that humans could even swallow it.

This is an good signal of ‘boldly going’ only here on earth. A lovely 5 min video.

The Deepest Dive in Antarctica Reveals a Sea Floor Teeming With Life

No one really knows what’s in the deep ocean in Antarctica. Now we have the technology to reach into the ocean depths, we accompanied scientist and deep-sea explorer Jon Copley and became the first to descend to 1000 meters underwater in Antarctica for Blue Planet II. The exotic creatures we found there will astonish you.

This video is a part of Our Blue Planet, a joint venture between Alucia Productions and BBC Earth to get people talking about the ocean.

And elsewhere new domains of life and the living continue to be discovered.
“Considering the Bermudian waters have been comparatively well studied for many decades, we certainly weren’t expecting such a large number and diversity of new species,” says Alex Rogers, Professor of Conservation Biology at Oxford University and scientific director of Nekton.

100 species discovered as scientists find new ocean zone

An ocean zone nobody knew existed, which is home to more than 100 new species, has been discovered by Oxford University.
The Rariphotic Zone, or rare light zone, extends from 226 feet (130m) to 984ft (300m) and joins five other areas which have distinct biological communities living and growing within them.

The new section, was discovered during a research mission to Bermuda organised by the British charity for ocean exploration Nekton, and led by marine research scientists from Oxford University.

As well as the new zone, more than 100 new species were discovered including tanaids – minute crustaceans - dozens of new algae species and black wire coral that stand up to two metres high.

Another signal about the entanglement of life forms and a challenge to redefining what sentience is.

Plants can use underground communication to find out when neighbors are stressed

Corn seedlings that grow close together give off underground signals that impact the growth of nearby plants, reports a study published May 2, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Velemir Ninkovic from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, and colleagues.

Plants have developed complex, chemical systems of communication to compensate for their immobile lifestyle. Many of their messages take the form of chemicals secreted by roots into the soil, which are detected through the roots of nearby plants. These secretions tell plants whether their neighbors are relatives or strangers and help them direct their growth accordingly.

The researchers demonstrated that even brief disturbances aboveground can lead to changes in underground communication that cause nearby plants to change their growth strategies. They note that researchers should take into account the extent to which they touch plants during an experiment, such as occurs while taking measurements, as the effects on touched plants and their neighbors have the potential to impact experimental results.

And one more signal of plant communication.
"Why should plants have receptors like the ones that make neurons work? Our results support the idea that individual plant cells have a level of autonomy that animal cells do not," Feijó said. "Each plant cell has its own immune system, for example. And they have more communication channels to deal with the fact that they are stuck in place.

A new model for communication in plant cells

Plant cells share a strange and surprising kinship with animal neurons: many plant cells have proteins that closely resemble glutamate receptors, which help to relay nerve signals from one neuron to another. While plants lack a true nervous system, previous studies have shown that plants need these glutamate receptor-like proteins (GLRs) to do important things such as mate, grow, and defend themselves against diseases and pests.

A study led by University of Maryland researchers suggests a new model for how GLRs function in plant cells. Working with Arabidopsis thaliana pollen cells, the researchers found that GLRs form the basis of a complex communication network inside individual plant cells. Their findings also suggest that GLRs rely on another group of proteins, called "cornichon" proteins, to shuttle GLRs to different locations and regulate GLR activity within each cell.

With the help of cornichon proteins, GLRs act as valves that carefully manage the concentration of calcium ions—a vital aspect of many cell communication pathways—within various structures inside the cell, the study found. The research, which could inform many new studies of cell-to-cell communication in plants and animals alike, is featured on the cover of the May 4, 2018, issue of the journal Science. Researchers from the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência in Portugal and the Universidad Nacional de Autónoma de México co-authored the study.

This is a short read but worth the read - the key issue is to distinguish how businesses create business models that use science versus the science itself and what positive benefits it can provide.

Are you anti-GMO? Then you’re anti-science, too.

In keeping with our era of ideological boycotts, I will no longer be purchasing Kind bars. Or Barilla pasta. Or Triscuit crackers. Or Del Monte diced tomatoes. Or Nutro dog food.

A one-person boycott, of course, is really just a change in your shopping list. But the companies that produce these brands are guilty of crimes against rationality. All advertise on their packaging, in one way or another, that they don’t contain GMOs — genetically modified organisms. Walking down the aisle of my supermarket, I could have picked many other examples. Some food companies seem to be saying that GMO ingredients are not even fit for your dog.

My boycott is rooted in the fact that there is no reputable scientific evidence that direct genetic modification — instead of slower genetic modification through selective breeding — has any health effects of any kind. None. Here is a 2016 analysis of about 1,000 studies by the National Academy of Sciences: “The committee concluded that no differences have been found that implicate a higher risk to human health safety from these [Genetically Engineered] foods than from their non-GE counterparts.” The NAS was joined in this judgment by the Royal Society, the French Academy of Science and the American Medical Association.

Here’s an signal of the emerging transformation of medicine - anticipating Star Trek capabilities - merging domesticating DNA and 3D printing.

Researchers develop portable 3-D skin printer to repair deep wounds

University of Toronto researchers have developed a handheld 3-D skin printer that deposits even layers of skin tissue to cover and heal deep wounds. The team believes it to be the first device that forms tissue in situ, depositing and setting in place, within two minutes or less.

The research, led by Ph.D. student Navid Hakimi under the supervision of Associate Professor Axel Guenther of the Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering, and in collaboration with Dr. Marc Jeschke, director of the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook Hospital and professor of immunology at the Faculty of Medicine, was recently published in the journal Lab on a Chip.

For patients with deep skin wounds, all three skin layers – the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis – may be heavily damaged. The current preferred treatment is called split-thickness skin grafting, where healthy donor skin is grafted onto the surface epidermis and part of the underlying dermis.

Split-thickness grafting on large wounds requires enough healthy donor skin to traverse all three layers, and sufficient graft skin is rarely available. This leaves a portion of the wounded area "ungrafted" or uncovered, leading to poor healing outcomes.

This is a great signal about extending research related to domesticating DNA and increasing longevity by starting with our best friends.
“We have already done a bunch of trials in mice and we are doing some in dogs, and then we’ll move on to humans,” Church told the podcaster Rob Reid earlier this year.

A stealthy Harvard startup wants to reverse aging in dogs, and humans could be next

Biologist George Church says the idea is to live to 130 in the body of a 22-year-old.
The world’s most influential synthetic biologist is behind a new company that plans to rejuvenate dogs using gene therapy. If it works, he plans to try the same approach in people, and he might be one of the first volunteers.

The stealth startup Rejuvenate Bio, cofounded by George Church of Harvard Medical School, thinks dogs aren’t just man’s best friend but also the best way to bring age-defeating treatments to market.

The company, which has carried out preliminary tests on beagles, claims it will make animals “younger" by adding new DNA instructions to their bodies.

Its age-reversal plans build on tantalizing clues seen in simple organisms like worms and flies. Tweaking their genes can increase their life spans by double or better. Other research has shown that giving old mice blood transfusions from young ones can restore some biomarkers to youthful levels.

And here a signal that has accelerated quite a number of domains.

$5 Million Prize for Origin of Genetic Code

Organizers say knowing how DNA came to be could lead to intelligent, evolving computer code
The most famous X-Prizes inspired us to look to the stars. Now, a high-stakes science prize wants us to look within, all the way down to the A’s, T’s, C’s, and G’s of the genetic code.

The Evolution 2.0 contest just kicked off, and will be open until 2026. The prize, initiated by an intelligent design proponent but judged by two prominent biologists, promises $100,000 ($5 million if the approach is patentable) to whoever can solve the mystery of how the genetic code came to be. In other words, if you can demonstrate how to get a soup of chemicals to self-generate and transmit a code, they’ll make you rich.